Fungal infections can affect any part of the body. Fungi are normally present in and on the body alongside various bacteria. When a fungus begins to overgrow, you can get an infection.
Onychomycosis, also called tinea unguium, is a fungal infection that affects either the fingernails or toenails. Fungal infections normally develop over time, so any immediate difference in the way your nail looks or feels may be too subtle to notice at first.
Common signs of a fungal nail infection include:
There are many different causes of fungal nail infections, and each cause has a treatment of its own. Although many of the causes of a fungal nail infection are preventable, some risk factors increase the likelihood of developing it. You’re more likely to develop a fungal nail infection if you:
It is the most common surgical procedure performed on the nail unit. It is the excision of the body of the nail plate from its primary attachments, the nail bed ventrally and the PNF dorsally. Avulsion of the nail plate may be initially performed to allow full exposure of the nail matrix before chemical or surgical matricectomy. Other indications for performing nail avulsion are to treat recalcitrant onychocryptosis; to excise tumors of the nail unit; to allow full examination and exploration of the nail bed, the nail matrix, the PNF and the LNF, and the nail grooves for the presence of pathology; or to use as a preliminary step before performing biopsy on the nail bed and the nail matrix.
An ingrown toenail is caused by the pressure from the ingrowth of the nail edge into the skin of the toe. Once the edge of the nail breaks through the skin, it produces inflammation. Initially presenting as a minor discomfort, it may progress into an infection in the adjacent skin (cellulitis) and/or become a reoccurring problem. Ingrown toenails most commonly affect the large (great) toes. An ingrown toenail is medically referred to as onychocryptosis.